Lineaverde International January 2022 LANDSCAPE Open spaces give breath to our cities DOSSIER A guide to Italian nurseries: production and contact details URBAN GREEN Renew the tree heritage to make it safe, efficient and sustainable THE INTERNATIONAL VERSION OF THE LEADING MAGAZINE IN ITALY FOR FLORICULTURE AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE Italian nursery industry, 2021 with lights and shadows

Lineaverde is published by EPE Edizioni srl Via Spezia, 33 - 20142 Milan - Italy Ph. +39 02 E-Mail for subscriptions or information: E-Mail for enquiries and correspondence to the editorial office: Web: Editor-in-chief: Massimo Casolaro ( Executive editor: Renato Ferretti ( Coordination: Silvia Vigé ( Advertising EPE Edizioni - Via Spezia, 33 - 20142 Milano Ph. +39 02 Advertising Manager: Maurizio Casolaro ( Contributors: Adriana Colombo, Renato Ferretti, Biagio Guccione, Claudia Perolari, Edoardo Sciutti, Sivia Vigé Translations: Elisa Salemi ( Facts and figures Italian nursery industry, 2021 with lights and shadows ............................................ PAG. 6 Companies Visit the nursery with the Virtual Tour ............................................................................ PAG. 9 Companies Pazzaglia, highly efficient and cost-effective nursery machines for daily tasks ......... PAG. 10 Sustainability FSI 2025: improving sustainability in floriculture .......................................................... PAG. 12 Companies Vannucci Piante, fast, punctual and everywhere ........................................................... PAG. 17 Companies Sustainable substrates for agriculture from dredged remediated marine sediments ................................................................ PAG. 18 Market The numbers of the German horticulture market .......................................................... PAG. 20 Companies Tradition and new varieties: this is Romiti Vivai ............................................................ PAG. 24 Landscaping architecture Landscape redevelopment ............................................................................................... PAG. 26 Urban green Renew the tree heritage to make it safe, efficient and sustainable ............................. PAG. 31 LINEAVERDE NEWS ....................................................................................................... PAG. 34 A GUIDE TO ITALIAN NURSERIES ............................................................................ PAG. 44 > SUMMARY < Pag. 1 • Lineaverde International January 2022

• AGRARIA CHECCHI inside cover • CARLESI VIVAI page 39 • FLORATOSCANA page 19 • GT PIANTE back cover • IDEL page 41 • MY PLANT inside cover • NIPPON TREE page 37 • PAZZAGLIA page 11 • ROMITI VIVAI page 25 • VANNUCCI PIANTE pages 2-3 Lineaverde is Italy’s leading horticultural magazine. For 48 years it has provided a useful source of information for those working in the sector. It publishes articles on: growing techniques, arboriculture, botany, running horticultural businesses, landscape gardening, ecology; moreover it provides technical, commercial and statistical facts and figures. Lineaverde International is the international edition of the magazine translated in English. Its formation began with the idea of promoting Italian horticulture abroad. It is sent once a year to the main European growers. It is found to be the quickest and most efficent way to inform the world about horticulture in Italy, it being one of the richest producers in Europe (23 percent of European horticultural production ) for volume, quality and variety. Italy is the most commercially interesting horticultural producer in Europe in particular for its wealth of variety. Cut flowers, house, garden and public park plants make up the vast assortment available and this is enriched by Italy’s own exotic production of ornamental citrus in terracotta pots, olives of every shape and kind and the most unusual Mediterranean species. Lineaverde ist die führende Zeitschrift in Italien auf dem Gärtnereisektor. Seit fast 48 Jahren ist sie ein nützliches Arbeitsmittel für all diejenigen, die auf diesem Gebiet tätig sind. Die Veröffentlichung behandelt Themen wie: Anbautechniken, Baumschulen, Pflanzenkrankheiten, Management des Gärtnereibetriebs, Landschaftsbau, Ökologie und berichtet außerdem von technische Daten, Waren und Statistiken des Bereichs. Lineaverde International ist die internationale Version von Lineaverde und dient als Mittel zur Förderung der italienischen Pflanzenzucht im Ausland. Sie wird an ein ausgewähltes europäisches Fachpublikum verschickt. Die Veröffentlichung ist die schnellste und wirksamste Methode, um die Kenntnis der italienischen Erzeugerrealität – ein der reichsten in Europa bezogen auf das Volumen (23% der europäischen Pflanzenzuchtproduktion), Qualität und Sortiment – zu vertiefen. Dies gilt besonders für das Sortiment der Erzeugnisse, die von Schnittblumen zu Zimmerpflanzen gehen, von Gartenpflanzen hin zu Pflanzen für große Parks (angereichert mit einigen Besonderheiten der Produktion wie Zier-Zitrusfrüchte in Terrakotta-Kübeln, Olivenbäume in allen Varietäten und Formen und den ausgefallene Mittelmeerpflanzen), wo Italien bezogen auf die Pflanzenzucht das heterogenste und kommerziell gesehen interessanteste Land ist. Lineaverde est la revue de floriculture et arboriculture leader en Italie. Depuis bientôt 48 ans elle est un instrument de travail précieux pour tous les opérateurs du secteur. Elle traite des arguments suivants: les techniques de culture, l’arboriculture, la phytopathologie, la gestion d’une pépinière, le paysagisme, l’écologie; elle divulgue en outre des informations techniques, sur les marchandises, ainsi que les statistiques intéressant le secteur. Lineaverde International, qui est la version internationale de Lineaverde, a été conçu afin d’assurer la promotion des pépinières italiennes à l’étranger. Elle est expédiée à des opérateurs européens triés sur le volet. Cette publication est la façon la plus rapide et efficace d’approfondir la connaissance de la production italienne, l’une des plus riches d’Europe quant au volume (23% de la production floricole et arboricole européenne), à la qualité et à l’assortiment. L’Italie est certainement, dans le secteur des fleurs et des plantes, le pays le plus hétérogène et le plus intéressant du point de vue commercial, en raison de son assortiment, qui va des fleurs coupées aux plantes d’appartement, pour jardins et pour grands parcs (enrichi par quelques productions particulières comme les agrumes ornementaux en pots de terre cuite, les oliviers de toutes les formes et variétés et les plantes méditerranéennes les plus curieuses). ADVERTISING > EDITORIAL < Pag. 4 • Lineaverde International January 2022

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The Italian horticultural sector plays an important role within the economic framework and the national GDP, with approximately 158,000 employees operating in the sector and 37,000 companies and professionals belonging to the "landscape care and maintenance" group (Ateco / Istat code) as well as approximately 20,000 horticultural companies with a long tradition in the cultivation of flowers, indoor and outdoor ornamental plants as well as plants for urban greenery. The production of Italian horticultural companies is equal to 2.6 billion euros, divided into 1.3 billion for flowers and potted plants and 1.3 billion for nursery products (trees and shrubs); it represents almost 5% of the total agricultural production and 50% derives from the flower and potted plants sectors while the remainWhat has just ended was a peaks-and-valleys year for Italian horticulture. Turnover is doing well compared to 2020 but also to 2019, overall exports are also good, but not to all areas. However, there are also critical issues, primarily a lack of mediumlarge plants and an increase in production costs. > FACTS AND FIGURES < Pag. 6 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Italian nursery industry, 2021 with lights and shadows di Renato Ferretti

Pag. 7 • Lineaverde International January 2022 ing 50% from plants, trees and shrubs destined for parks and gardens. Furthermore, the sector groups purely agricultural activities, associated with others of an industrial nature, and is composed upstream of the producers and multipliers of production material, the industries that supply the means of production (pots, soils, chemical factors, etc.), and mechanization: industries that produce greenhouses, plant engineering and machinery for production, maintenance and management; downstream from wholesalers and other types of intermediaries, from industries that produce packaging materials (paper, fabrics, inert materials, etc.) and from retail distribution. The latter is divided into garden centers, “Do it Yourself” centers, and LOD and OD (Large Organized Distribution and Organized Distribution). On a strictly agricultural level, there are 13,633 horticultural enterprises registered in the business register, of which 7,942 pertain to the ATECO code 01.19.1 (cultivation of flowers in the open air); 1,948 to the ATECO code 01.19.2 (cultivation of flowers in protected crops) and 3,772 to the ATECO code 01.3 (plant reproduction). Almost 55% of these companies are concentrated in four regions: Liguria (2,604 shares), Tuscany (1,895 shares); Lombardy (1,546 shares) and Campania (1,270 shares). If we look at the types of production, Liguria has the primacy of the companies growing flowers in the open air with 2,309 companies, Campania in the cultivation of flowers in protected crops with 260 companies and Tuscany for nursery companies with 1,132 ones. As to trade, it should be noted that horticultural exports in the first six months of 2021 exceeded 310 million euros (+29.8% compared to the same period in 2020). Almost all Italian regions show an increase in exports, starting with Tuscany (+39.7%, 144.6 million/euro), Liguria (+51.9%, 31.7 million/euro), Sicily (+25.7%, 27.4 million/euro) and Emilia-Romagna (+16.1%, 31.5 million/euro). Only a few regions show a decrease in exports and among these we highlight Trentino-Alto Adige (-2.9%, 11.5 million /euro) and Veneto, whose exports fell to 11.5 million/euro, equal to a decline of 8.7%. In general, the positive trend continued until the end of 2021 and has largely exceeded even the positive data of 2019. Regarding ornamental nurseries, the turnover has continued to grow both for the internal market with a demand coming mainly from garden centers but also from the Municipalities with the measures that various Regions (Tuscany, Emilia, Lombardy, etc.) have put in place for the fight against climate change and also The production of Italian horticultural companies is equal to 2.6 billion euros, divided into 1.3 billion for flowers and potted plants and 1.3 billion for nursery products (trees and shrubs); it represents almost 5% of the total agricultural production. »»

a result of the growing demand, young plants and forest plants are also starting to lack. In general, the most requested plants are confirmed as evergreens, shaped plants, ornamental shrubs, roses and fruit plants whose stocks are now running out. It should be noted that there have been and are recorded difficulties in transport both due to the antiCovid measures and in the case of Great Britain also due to the complications due to the exit from the European Union but also due to the increase in costs. In fact, as Ismea highlighted in the AgriMercati report just published, under the pressure of the increase in the price of oil (Brent), which practically doubled in the space of a year and the record increases in energy products and other raw materials (respectively by +70 % and +57%), international agricultural markets are reacting with strong upward tensions (FAO Food price index +31% in October on an annual basis, driven by vegetable oils, cereals and sugar). Similarly, also in Italy the prices of agricultural products and means of production continue their race to the upside, started at the beginning of 2021. According to the index developed by Ismea, the increase in agricultural price lists recorded in the third quarter was 14.7% compared to the same period last year, a summary of the almost 20% increase in plant products and 10% in the zootechnical ones. In terms of current means of production, the Ismea index recorded a tendential increase of 7.2% in the same period, reflecting the increases in the prices of energy products (+24.4%) and fertilizers (+10.8%). ■ > FACTS AND FIGURES < for the launch of the projects of the first call of the so-called climate ministerial decree. For foreign markets, turnover continued to grow close to 10% compared to 2019. The demand comes mainly from Northern European countries (Holland, Germany, France) with a decline in demand from the Southern European block. While from the countries of Eastern Europe and Austria the demand is substantially constant, it is almost non-existent that from Russia and the Middle East. From the point of view of market demands, it should be noted that medium-large plants that require a long cultivation period and therefore prolonged investments that are not very compatible with the current financial system are starting to become scarce. But as In Italy too, the prices of agricultural products and means of production continue their race to the upside: in the third quarter of 2021 price lists +14.7%, means of production +7.2%. In 2021, horticultural exports continued to grow by close to 10% compared to 2019. Demand comes mainly from Northern European countries with a decline in the demand from Southern Europe. Pag. 8 • Lineaverde International January 2022

Pag. 9 • Lineaverde International January 2022 The virtual activity continues to be implemented and the Giorgio Tesi Group with the Nurseries Virtual Tour develops technological innovation in the most important nursery district in Europe. Thanks to the 360-degree panoramic photography, it will be possible to remotely explore the nurseries of the Giorgio Tesi Group, a leading company in the sector with 500 hectares of cultivated area, over 200 employees, 23 production centers in the Pistoia area and 4 branches in the rest of Italy. An innovative method designed to continue to dialogue with over 2,500 customers around the world and develop new business contacts, overcoming the limitations imposed by Covid19. To access the virtual tour, simply register on the company's website a map guides visitors in choosing the production center to explore, depending on the preferences expressed, between the 1,500 varieties of plants grown by the Group and the 2 million and 700 thousand plants in production. The system allows users to fully immerse in the nursery, thanks to images of great realism and high quality, and at the same time to obtain botanical and commercial information on the plants or to send requests to the reference commercial contact. The platform can be navigated using PC, through the main browsers, and using mobile. The Nurseries Virtual Tour today represents an innovation tool in customer relationship management. The platform will be constantly updated with periodic photographic services, in order to allow customers to see and choose with their own eyes the plants in production at each specific time of the year. Visitors will also be able to interact directly with the sales department and consult special offers that will be launched regularly. ■ Visit the nursery with the Virtual Tour > COMPANIES <

Founded in 1983 by Fabio Pazzaglia in the county of Pistoia, Pazzaglia' factory has grown from a small machine shop into a modern factory that produces and sells its own nursery machines becoming the first worldwide. Over the years their industry leading engineers and highly trained workforce have designed and assembled thousands of machines for a worldwide nursery market. Pazzaglia’s goal is to provide superbly engineered, highly efficient and cost-effective mechanization for the daily tasks of the nurserymen, not only Italian ones but worldwide. Following the constant evolution of the market, company Pazzaglia is currently developing even more cuttingedge technologies and machines, keeping an eye on the new environmental regulations in regards of emission standards issued by the European Union, which require the introduction of the new Stage V engines. We therefore suggest you to follow the Pazzaglia S.r.l.’s social profiles and website to stay updated on the new upcoming models. ■ Pazzaglia, highly efficient and cost-effective nursery machines for daily tasks > COMPANIES < Pag. 10 • Lineaverde International January 2022

FSI (Floriculture Sustainability Initiative) is a project founded in 2013 among various players in the international flower supply chain to collaboratively guide production and trade towards sustainable goals. The first step in verifying the objectives achieved was set in 2020, when its members managed to achieve collective goals in terms of responsible production and trade, innovations and best practices. Building on these findings, FSI's ambition for the next step identified in the year 2025 will promote transparency and accountability in the floriculture supply chain, through responsible production and trade, responsible conduct and integrated reporting. To get these wheels in motion, and following the FSI 2021 General Assembly, held on Tuesday 2 February, FSI members already intend to commit to consistently supporting various groundbreaking sustainability initiatives. A project that involves 75 players in the international flower supply chain that aims to lead the productive and commercial world of the sector towards sustainable goals. > SUSTAINABILITY < Pag. 12 • Lineaverde International January 2022 FSI 2025: improving sustainability in floriculture di Claudia Perolari

Pag. 13 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Who is involved? FSI currently includes 75 members belonging to the productive, commercial and associative worlds, mostly in the floricultural sector (cut and not cut) with a strong presence of Dutch operators. It includes international retailers such as Ikea, Aldi, Toom and Jumbo, supranational associations such as WWF, AIPH, certification bodies such as MPS, of course nurserymen, but there is really everything: wholesalers, service companies, chemical products companies, in short the entire supply chain from production to distribution. The onFSI 2025: the 'basket' of reference certifications »»

ly Italian member is ANCEF (National Association of Flower Merchants and Exporters). All members have set ambitious goals and a strategic plan to improve accountability and transparency within the horticultural sector by 2025. Milestones achieved... In the first 8 years of business, compliance, transparency and consumer awareness of sustainability in floriculture have improved, accompanied by stricter legal and market requirements, globally. Many challenges have been experienced along the entire supply chain since the 2020 pandemic, but at the same time we have also seen accelerated innovations in digitization, robust data collection practices and multilateral decision- > SUSTAINABILITY < Pag. 14 • Lineaverde International January 2022 The members of FSI 2025 ADOMEX AFRIFLORA AIPH AH ALDI ANCEF ANTHURA ASOCOLFLORES BGI BLOMSTER LANDET BLOOMON BRO BSR CHYSTAL DECORUM DUDUTECH DUMMEN ORANGE DUTCH FLOWER EFLORIST EHPER EXPOFLORES FAIR TRADE NEDERLAND FLEURAMETZ FLEUROP FLORALIFE FLORAL TRADE GROUP FLORICULTURA FLOWER TRADE CONSULT FLOWERWATCH FREDDIE’S FLOWERS FRESCO FLOWERS GASA GROUP GLASTUINBOUW NEDERLAND GLOBALG.A.P. GREENYARD GROENLAND HILVERDA DE BOER HIVOS HOLLA ROSES IKEA JUMBO KENYA FLOWER COUNCIL KOPPERT KUEHNE+NAGEL MARGINPAR MPS PARTNER AFRICA PFITZER PFLANZEN KÖLLE PLANTASJEN RABOBANK ROYAL FLORA HOLLAND ROYAL LEMKES ROYAL VAN ZANTEN SYNGENTA TOOM TUINBRANCHE NEDERLAND UNION FLEURS SALM BOSKOOP VERDEL VGB WATERDRINKER WBE WWF ZENTOO

making processes that further improved the resilience of the sector. In this context, FSI and its members recognize that efforts must continue to strengthen a supply chain where current and future sustainability issues can be addressed at the sector level, in line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). ... and those to be achieved Under these three pillars, FSI members have set four main goals to be achieved by 2025. These will include: 1. the expansion of the volumes produced and exchanged responsibly to 90%, including new environmental and social criteria; 2. a reduction of the carbon footprint for selected products; 3. a reduction in the decent wage gap for workers at farm level; 4. Encourage FSI members to report on progress and supplement due diligence reports. Members recognize that FSI's strength is bringing a sharing mindset to the table, enabling the industry to share knowledge and co-create on common solutions. FSI will remain a neutral, non-profit organization, with members retaining ownership for the implementation of their common ambition for 2025. But let's see the objectives in detail. Responsible production and trade Reaching 90% of the volumes produced and traded responsibly by 2025 means referring to a 'basket' of certifications of various kinds. From 1 January 2021, this 'basket' will include three areas: GAP (Good Agricultural Practices), social and environmental. Producers can choose from accredited certifications (see graph) in order to be covered in all three areas. Furthermore, the FSI basket will be updated with renewed benchmarking processes for GAP, social and environmental areas. FSI's existing social standards will need to be redefined by the end of 2023. The current GAP and environmental benchmarks will be assessed in 2021. FSI members will report and communicate on an annual basis on their achievements and goals. Reduction of the product carbon footprint World governments have decided to limit global warming to 1.5 °C by signing the 2015 Paris Agreement. The private sector has an imporPag. 15 • Lineaverde International January 2022 FSI currently includes 75 members belonging to the productive, commercial, associative worlds, mostly in the floricultural sector (cut and not cut) with a strong presence of Dutch operators. »»

and make monitoring possible, FSI members of production, trading and retail will provide an annual action plan and goals for the future. • The FSI Secretariat will conduct quarterly evaluation round tables with members based on the results of the Sustainable Procurement Scan. FSI will arrange support activities accordingly to help members achieve their goals. • From 2023 onwards, FSI members will also report on their results. With regard to external communication, that aimed at the public and the market: • From 2022, FSI members will publicly communicate their results and membership. Communication guidelines and temples will be developed by the FSI so that FSI members can integrate it into their organizational reporting. • FSI will communicate the aggregate results on FSI's ambitions annually. Due diligence reporting. • FSI members of trade, retail and production will report on due diligence under the United Nations Guiding Principles on Due Diligence by early 2025. • In the Netherlands, key Dutch FSI members have already made significant progress on this issue as signatories to the Responsible Business Conduct Agreement (RBCA / IMVO). FSI can use and further develop these learnings and activities. A roadmap will be jointly developed in 2021. • Program leaders will be able to assist FSI members in their due diligence process and compliance by providing necessary supply chain information and monitoring metrics and compliance in the field. ■ > SUSTAINABILITY < tant role to play in achieving this goal and FSI members want to contribute by reducing their organization and product carbon footprint. FSI will develop and test an environmental footprint tool in line with the EU HortiPEF and compare it to other methodologies currently used by members. Members can use the tool to calculate their carbon footprint and use benchmarks, setting a carbon reduction target for selected products by the end of 2021. This reduction will have to be in line with the Paris Agreement and will recognize previous efforts and achievements. Wage gap FSI members will continue to work together on the very important issue of the pay gap. The aim is to explore regional determination methodologies in order to ensure a living wage for all players in the global supply chain. The starting level must be the World Bank's minimum wage. By the end of 2021, and through engagement with the entire supply chain, realistic regional targets will be set to reduce the living wage gap by 2025. Therefore, FSI will make a special effort to ensure that all market partners along the supply chain join in this ambition, recognizing first and foremost that achieving a living wage is closely linked to selling products at a decent price. Integrated reporting Reporting is essential to demonstrate good practices and continuously drive improvement of transparent and data-driven supply chains. The process consists of: internal FSI reporting; external reporting of FSI results and external due diligence reporting. For members of trade, production and retail: • From 2022 FSI members of the production/trade and retail sectors will report directly to the FSI on the results of the 90% ambition using the 'Sustainable Sourcing Scan'. To do this they will follow updated monitoring guidelines and will use specific templates. • External verification is mandatory for new members in the first year of reporting and each member will be responsible for its own verification. • To incentivize the reporting progress on business practices Pag. 16 • Lineaverde International January 2022

Pag. 17 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Being able to deliver quickly and on time is becoming more and more of a key factor in remaining competitive ... it has always been vital for us and so we are well-prepared to handle the organizational complexities of both seasonal peaks in demand and of the high delivery standards demanded by today’s market. Our state-of-the-art infrastructures, our experienced personnel, our consolidated partnerships with reliable transportation specialists, mean we can control the time factor effectively and safely, whatever the time of the year and whatever the destination. ■ Vannucci Piante, fast, punctual and everywhere > COMPANIES <

Since October 2018 Flora Toscana has been coordinating a project cofounded by the European Union in the LIFE programme. The other associated beneficiaries are: CREA Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Research Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems of the National Research Council (CNR-IRET), Carbon Sink Group s.r.l., Miguel Hernández University of Elche and the Spanish nursery Caliplant. According to the principles of the circular economy, the SUBSED project aims at demonstrating that it is possible to convert a waste (the dredged marine sediment) into a supply (a commercial substrate) through the application of environmentally and economically sustainable practices. The sediment, previously phytoremediated in the European AGRIPORT project, was processed through three months landfarming in order to homogenize the matrix and increase the biological activity and then was mixed with different standard commercial growing media in different proportions. The trials are being carried out under greenhouse in Tuscany (Italy) and in Valencia and Murcia (Spain) on different ornamental and food crops. First results evidenced that the phytoremediated sediment was successfully used as partial substituted of standard growing media, like peat and coconut, in the portion varying between 25-50% depending upon the species. In fact, better results have been obtained for crops adapted to a wide range of Sustainable substrates for agriculture from dredged remediated marine sediments > COMPANIES < Pag. 18 • Lineaverde International January 2022 LIFE17 ENV/IT/000347 SUBSED soil and humidity (lemon, olive, cherry laurel, calla lily, strawberry and basil), while some limitations have become necessary for more demanding species (protea, blueberry). The demonstration trials are still in progress, therefore further results will be available later. ■

1971 2021 Cooperative of Growers Cooperation is our every day aim! The closest link to production, to you, in a click

According to the market report commissioned by Messe Essen for IPM Essen and produced by the CO CONCEPT agency, 2021 is characterised by record sales figures in the horticulture segment. While > MARKET < Pag. 20 • Lineaverde International January 2022 The numbers of the German horticulture market di Claudia Perolari On the days when the IPM Essen was to be held, Messe Essen shared the market report on the green sector in Germany.

Pag. 21 • Lineaverde International January 2022 the German market volume in 2020 – after many long years of stagnation – was already at €9,4 billion, which was believed to be a record high, this figure has been surpassed once again in 2021 with a 9% increase in the market volume compared to the previous year, according to AMI (Agrarmarkt Informations-Gesellschaft mbH). In fact, over the past two years the pandemic has driven demand for greenery. Many people used the lockdown phases as an opportunity to busy themselves with work inside their house, on the balcony or in the garden, in order to compensate for the leisure activities that were no longer possible and increase their sense of well-being. According to AMI, the per-capita expenditure for flowers and plants in Germany increased from €108 in 2019 to €113 in 2020 and finally to €124 in 2021. In 2020, consumers in each segment spent one euro more per capita on perennials, deciduous shrubs, green houseplants, bedding plants and balcony plants than they did the previous year. When translated to around 83,2 million German citizens, this represents a guaranteed increase in market volume. 2021 also showed that customers in the horticultural retail sector are willing to pay slightly more for plants. An analysis of till receipts shows that, depending on the type and location of the business, customers spent up to 20% more on average per purchase compared to the previous year in 2020, which was already a strong year for sales. In terms of the products grown, perennials are now the most imGreat Britain as leading consumer The demand of British consumers for flowers and plants was so large that there was a 30,6% increase in exports from the Netherlands to Great Britain in 2021. There was also a large demand for greenery in France and exports to France increased by 19,5%. It’s clear that the increase in exports to Germany, that stands at 8,4%, was significantly lower than the increases in Great Britain and France. Experts struggle to predict the extent to which the high demand from Great Britain will continue in 2022. The fact is that flowers and plants will once again become significantly more expensive for Great Britain from July 2022 onwards and the reason for this is that, from this point onwards, the United Kingdom will introduce its “comprehensive and full monitoring of flowers and plants from the Netherlands”. This means that – from 1 July 2022 onwards – in addition to the requirement for a phytosanitary certificate, plants (potted plants, cuttings, trees, perennials, cut flowers, etc.) to be imported into the United Kingdom must be physically checked at border controls. This policy was originally supposed to be introduced on 1 January 2021, however, the pandemic lead to significant problems for the implementation. As a result, the introduction of these measures was delayed. Therefore, the real additional costs resulting from the increased administrative efforts brought about by Brexit will be reflected in prices from summer 2022 onwards. Generally, at the beginning of the pandemic, exports from the Netherlands were subject to significant fluctuations due to the various lockdown periods and different regulations in different EU countries. Exports to France suffered enormously, as did exports to the USA and Russia. There was a positive trend in exports to countries in which the supply of supermarkets makes up a large percentage of exports, such as Great Britain. In 2020, the Netherlands was only able to achieve an increase in exports to four of the ten most important export countries, whereas there was a negative trend in all other destination countries. Due to the pandemic, no reliable predictions about the trends for the coming years can be derived from the export statistics for 2020 and 2021. »»

rates of growth. The average annual growth in the “Garden” product group stands at 20,2%. Challenges in the horticulture sector Concerning the cultivation and production of ornamental plants in Germany, the German Federal Statistical Office analysis showed that in 2021 there are only 3,120 holdings specialising in ornamental plants, which equates to a 15% decrease in the number of companies compared to 2017. In addition, due to the current hype surrounding plants, it seems safe to assume that some producers will consider the idea of gradually increasing their areas of cultivation, but the availability of personnel and cultivation areas are increasingly becoming limiting factors. In 2021, some marketing organisations reported that they were no longer able to supply and provide logistics services for flowers and plants due to staff shortages. Even outsourcing these services to logistics service providers > MARKET < portant outdoor plants, whereas the cultivation of cacti, green plants and foliage plants increased by approximately 27%, almost reaching the peak figures for cultivation that were achieved in 2012. Online trade With regard to online shopping, the sale of flowers and plants in the horticulture sector has previously played a relatively minor role when viewing the market as a whole. However, the latest figures show that an increasing trend can be expected. For example, in the “Garden” product group, the prepandemic level of online sales in this product was around 8,5%, with flowers, plants and garden accessories only accounting for a small percentage of sales in this segment. However, it is clear that online sales in this product group are experiencing above-average Pag. 22 • Lineaverde International January 2022

proved unsuccessful due to personnel shortages in the upstream and downstream supply chain. The picture is much the same at the production level. In terms of the expansion of cultivation areas, in addition to the problem of physical availability, there is also the issue of how the new areas will be funded. According to the Federal Office for Agriculture and Food, leasing rates for agricultural land in Germany have more than doubled over the last ten years. Purchasing prices for agricultural land increased even more steeply during this period. For example, where 1 hectare of land would have cost €11,854 on average in 2010, the same amount of land in 2020 would cost €26,777. The Education and Research Institute for Horticulture Erfurt (LVG) recorded the prices for the bedding plants and balcony plants season in 2021 and attested to the fact that further price adjustments were a possibility for 2021. When looking at an average of all product ranges, a price increase of 13 cents per pot was observed. Therefore, in 2021, the average price per bedding plant or balcony plant was €2.62 rather than €2.49. The fact that a threshold value of €2.49 was often used for bedding and balcony plants shows that other threshold prices increased significantly, resulting in a price increase of 13 cents per pot. Necessary price adjustments were also successfully implemented in 2021 in retail tree nurseries. Even sales prices for specimen plants were corrected upwards due to increased purchase prices. In isolated cases, price increases of 100% were achieved through attractive and high-quality presentation and accepted without complains by customers. However, initial analyses by the Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and Applied Research in Hanover (ZBG) showed that the current price level is not high enough to compensate for the increased production costs. This was reflected in the balance sheet of many companies at the end of the year. Nowadays everyone is aware of the increasing logistics costs (10 to 20% more expensive compared to the previous year), increasing heating costs (heating oil 50% more expensive than in the previous year) and increasing costs for plant pots (20% more expensive than in the previous year), however, not all plant nurseries pass these costs on to customers. As a result, the average price increases of 10% for flowers and plants are not enough to cover the increased production costs in most cases. As early as 2020, the Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and Applied Research in Hanover (ZBG) pointed out that even though all horticultural businesses had significantly higher sales figures, this did not always translate into more profits. Quite the opposite, in fact 33% of the horticultural businesses achieved significantly lower profits than in previous years despite the “explosion in sales”. The situation is expected to become even more critical as a result of further increases in production costs in 2021. In short, the plant market has been particularly affected by Coronavirus and now it remains to be seen whether the demand for flowers and plants brought about by the pandemic will continue to grow or whether it will prove to be merely a one-off effect. ■ Pag. 23 • Lineaverde International January 2022

Romiti Vivai di Pietro e Figli, as well as many Italian nurseries, just had an extraordinary year. For 2022 the offer of ornamental plants, fruit and perennials from the Pistoia nursery is based on a selection of plants of the Italian tradition. They include topiate evergreen plants such as Cupressocyparis leylandii Castlewelland Gold, the more than traditional Olea europaea in different shapes and sizes, up to the Quercus suber grown as bonsai. The range of Mediterranean plants has also recently been enriched with varieties of Cordyline australis such as 'Can Can' with long bright pink variegated red leaves on a creamy yellow and emerald green base, 'Charlie Boy' with long vertical burgundy leaves in the central band and bright pink along the edges. Cordyline australis 'Electric flash'® and 'Electric Pink'® are varieties with colored leaves suitable for both warm and less hot climates. Their good ability to make lateral shoots make them very suitable for growing in pots. Each year they produce many colorful shoots from the base of the plant that grow into long, soft, green and creamy white leaves, with eye-catching brownish red or neon pink, like 'Electric Pink'®. The search for new varieties to offer to European customers has led Davide and Lorenzo Romiti to look for new crops suitable for all types of climates. All the novelties selected by Romiti Vivai need to be able to face the most diverse atmospheric conditions and temperatures. A modern pot cultivation approach, based also on recyclable pots and produced using 70% recycled plastic, gives an environmental friendly approach to the Romiti plants. Water reduction, together with the use of natural Miscanthus mulch, allows Romiti Vivai to reduce the watering and the chemicals for grass control. Romiti family will continue offering plant quality for a suitable and environmentally friendly world. Romiti Vivai wants to continue developing the market balancing innovation and tradition. ■ Tradition and new varieties: this is Romiti Vivai > COMPANIES < Pag. 24 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Mad about Mangave®. Magnolia grandiflora Alta. Eucalyptus gunnii Azura. Magnolia ‘Genie’.

since 1921 Via Ronciona, 16/A 51100 Chiazzano - Pistoia (Italy) Ph. +39 0573 532031 - Romiti Vivai Philosophy of life

Our cities are an alternation of open and built spaces of various values, from well-kept old towns, the legacy of a glorious past full of valuable works, to the old park, from the cathedral to the town hall or to the main square where all the citizens belong, up to the contemporary periphery without any identity. These are already well-addressed subjects. The real point is not to criticize - in this practice even the village idiot is good - but to propose solutions. Landscaping has all the tools to redevelop every corner of our planet whether it is agricultural, forest or abandoned territories or urban open spaces. Here lies the strength of our discipline, since its foundations have a strong basis: any necessary transformation must follow the basic ecological principles. Nothing new, it is a question of re-proposing what men have done for centuries to live on this earth: exploiting natural resources to survive without altering the balance. Recently this process has been interrupted by nefarious interventions. Today we are called to heal these wounds. Here we will mention some good practices through which landscape architects in contemporary cities have given adequate anOpen spaces give breath to our cities. Redeveloping any free area available is essential and prevents degradation. > LANDSCAPING ARCHITECTURE < Pag. 26 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Landscape redevelopment Lyon Confluence. Pedestrian path (photo A.Meli). di Biagio Guccione

Pag. 27 • Lineaverde International January 2022 swers to restore parts of the city with well-calibrated and original interventions. The cases are numerous. In the first place, the former industrial areas must be rethought, because they are often a sign of evident degradation in the city. The evolution of technology and the economy has burned in the span of a few decades, and the very existence of industrial complexes - that were considered fundamental for the economy of a city - is now often a ballast. There is a tendency to renovate these buildings by assigning them other functions; if it is possible, nothing bad, but certainly if the degradation is high it is better to take this opportunity to leave everything free and let our saturated cities breathe. Enough of new buildings, yes to open spaces and trees! Landscape literature is full of these good practices, and we have often mentioned them in these pages. A well-known example is the Clot Park in Barcelona(1). It is a limited portion of the city, just over a block, built within an area previously occupied by the former urban transport system (RENFE) and this old structure has remained, by the will of the designers, as a wreck. "Fascinating pieces 'dissected' as ruins or quotations. - as Landscaping has all the tools suitable to redevelop every corner of our planet whether it is agricultural, forest or abandoned territories or whether it addresses the recovery of urban open spaces. »» Landscaping in Lyon Confluence (photo A. Meli). Lisbon, Parque Tejo and Trancão. The dunes that simulate the initial situation. Lisbon, Parque Tejo and Trancão (photo Finotti).

the Ruhr basin is very famous. This project is well known all over the world and it is no coincidence that Peter Latz was awarded the Geoffrey Jellicoe Prize during the IFLA Congress in Turin in 2016. Landschaftspark-Duisburg-Nord is a courageous, in some ways reckless redevelopment operation. Fortunately it was very successful. Antonella Valentini writes about it: “Industrial memory is recalled in fragments, without nostalgia: collapsed walls, underground tunnels, bridges, paths are "naturalized" like ghosts of an industrial ‘wilderness’ that fascinates the visitor”.(3) Equally important is the redevelopment that concerns the river banks, often subject to abandonment and decay. Memorable is the recovery of the banks of the River Mersey in Liverpool, venue of the 1984 International Garden Festival, which was covered with a large layer of oil residues, but which with commitment and ample financial resources has been transformed into one of the green areas of the gardening exhibition. Although the park itself was only opened to the public almost thirty years later, after various events, > LANDSCAPING ARCHITECTURE < Zagari wrote in 1988 - Some look like an aqueduct, others a hypostyle hall with an open sky, then a chimney. A complex sedimentation of new systems is introduced on this archaeological plot"(2). Obviously, for the designers, the park is the last layer of this sedimentation. If this is an intervention limited to a few hectares within a city, we have examples with a very large size involving hectares and hectares of land. The redevelopment completed by Peter Latz in Pag. 28 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Liverpool International Garden Festival, 1984. Landschaftspark-Duisburg (Latzpartner). Landschaftspark-Duisburg-Nord (P. Latz).

in 2012. The Lisbon area was in the same condition where in 1998, on the occasion of the Expo, the landscape architects Nunes and Hargreaves created the park of Tejo and Trancão, named after the two rivers that meet in this area. Here the pollution was such that the designers wanted to represent the level of pollution from which they had started, reproducing the heaps of bitumen in the new and astounding waterfront. The situation in Lyon at the confluence of the Rhone with the Saone appeared much more favorable, but the obstacles were many all the same. In the end, the environmental remediation operation was successfully completed by all the landscape architects who intervened, among which the figure of Michel Desvigne stands out. Today Lyon Confluence is a model of urban and landscape redevelopment for all of Europe. Even in this short space, where it is impossible to describe the broad range of cases that contemporary landscaping offers, it seems appropriate to also menPag. 29 • Lineaverde International January 2022 ... rehabilitating the degraded areas of our cities is possible, just contact scrupulous and competent landscape architects. Above and below, redevelopment of the Sardelli area, Poggibonsi, landscape architect A. Meli (Studio INLAND). Clot Park, Barcelona, 1986. Dani Freixes and Vicente Miranda project. Clot Park, Barcelona, Nike by the sculptor Bryan Hunt. »»

The same spirit animates the careful recovery made by the colleagues of Studio Franchi + Associati in a small Estonian town on the border with Latvia: Valga, which together with Valka forms a single urban center in decline after independence from the Soviet regime. “The redevelopment of the city - said Gianfranco Franchi to the Aiaap(4) webinar - began with the regeneration of the old District 8 with the creation of a new public space: the central square of Valga. The purpose of the municipal administration was to redevelop the oldest district of the city to create the conditions for an urban, economic and social rebirth". From the image that Franchi showed us the landscape stitching operation appears perfectly successful! These few examples are enough to show that rehabilitating the degraded areas of our cities is possible, it just depends on the political will and on the choice of scrupulous and competent landscape architects. n Note al testo (1) B. Guccione, The Clot Park in Barcelona, in Lineaverde, February, 2009. (2) Franco Zagari, The architecture of the contemporary garden, Arnoldo Mondadori / De Luca, Milan / Rome 1988. (3) Antonella Valentini, Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord, Germany, in B. Guccione, Contemporary Parks and Gardens, Alinea Firenze 2001. (4) New urban spaces in Estonia | AIAPP TUM, 22 January 2021, Aiapp YouTube channel ( v=7XEpWcoV_ZA&ab_channel=AI APPWebTV) > LANDSCAPING ARCHITECTURE < tion some examples of redevelopment of residual areas within the urban perimeter. In fact, it often happens in our cities to have large areas without a specific role since they are simply waste spaces. Here we report the recent intervention by colleague Andrea Meli (Studio Inland) in Poggibonsi in the ex-Sardelli area. A large area, which had never had a destination, within this small town in the Sienese area, has been redeveloped with a very simple and essential intervention: a large lawn, pedestrian paths illuminated with LED street lamps, some seats and a few groups of shrubs contained in geometrically marked spaces that interact with the trees placed in contact with strategic areas of the urban structure. Pag. 30 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Above, Valga. The central area of the square, in the background the Lutheran Jaani church. Franchi + Associati OÜ Project (Gianfranco Franchi, Chiara Tesi, Rea Sepping). Ph. M. Tomba. Below, Valga. The new public building serving the square's activities, alongside the platform for events. Franchi + Associati OÜ Project (Gianfranco Franchi, Chiara Tesi, Rea Sepping). Ph. M. Tomba.

Pag. 31 • Lineaverde International January 2022 Afew years ago I published a reflection on tree management on a social network. I reread it and found it still relevant, given the particular moment that the trees are experiencing, "pulled" on both sides by interests that, unfortunately, are sometimes not really "disinterested", or seen as smoke in the eyes by some uninformed citizens who are unwilling to love their neighbor and who consider them potential killers. It is clear that this is my point of view, but I would like it to be the basis for a healthy discussion and not for the usual "battles" on social networks. The benefits provided by trees are known and scientifically proven and they far outweigh the risks associated with their presence. The latter, however, is essential to maintaining (or, if possible, improving) the minimum living conditions of our urban environments to ensure that the aforementioned risks are as minor as possible. We must be aware that the arboreal heritage of our cities, characterized by plants planted in past times (some plants date back to the 1800s, most to the fascist or postwar era) poses imperative management problems that are not easy to deal with, from both a technical and a political point of view. Our administrations are taken among several sides: 1) the need to minimize the risk and ensure the safety of use; 2) the unfavorable economic situation which has led to cuts that are no longer compatible with minimal management of the arboreal heritage; 3) the pressure of the citizens who, on the basis of no good knowledge, expect trees to be managed as "they want" and not as they should; 4) the pressure of an environmentalist extremism, often shortsighted and not open to dialogue, which in some of its components has taken a dead end, which does not help to improve the environment, but now represents an additional problem. Its initiatives, relying on people's > URBAN GREEN < Renew the tree heritage to make it safe, efficient and sustainable di Francesco Ferrini The arboreal heritage of our cities poses some imperative management problems that are not easy to deal with, from both a technical and a political point of view: think about the city as it will be; evaluate the difference between senescent and monumental trees; adopt the appropriate management solutions. Francesco Ferrini.